Currently euro coins and notes are accepted anywhere in the Eurozone, regardless of the country of issue. Small and medium-sized enterprises form the backbone of the euro area economy. Using a common currency allows businesses to grow as it reduces costs and risks, and encourages investment. These are the average exchange rates of these two currencies for the last 30 and 90 days. Bulgaria has negotiated an exception; euro in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet is spelled eвро (evro) and not eуро (euro) in all official documents.[125] In the Greek script the term ευρώ (evró) is used; the Greek “cent” coins are denominated in λεπτό/ά (leptó/á).

  1. The Maastricht Treaty was amended by the 2001 Treaty of Nice,[19] which closed the gaps and loopholes in the Maastricht and Rome Treaties.
  2. The treaty called for a common unit of exchange, the euro, and set strict criteria for conversion to the euro and participation in the EMU.
  3. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, and a map in the background.
  4. This is because of the implications of the Mundell–Fleming model, which implies a central bank cannot (without capital controls) maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously, because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency.
  5. The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos, which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December 2002, although banknotes remained exchangeable until 2022.

As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of euro banknotes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems. The treaty called for a common unit of exchange, the euro, and set strict criteria for conversion to the euro and participation in the EMU. The euro arose from the 1991 Maastricht Treaty, in which the 12 original member countries of the European Community (now the European Union) created an economic and monetary union and a corresponding common unit of exchange.

Basics of Currency Pair: EUR/USD (Euro/U.S. Dollar)

The euro is divided into 100 cents (also referred to as euro cents, especially when distinguishing them from other currencies, and referred to as such on the common side of all cent coins). In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.[32][33] Otherwise, normal English plurals are used,[34] with many local variations such is microsoft a good stock to buy as centime in France. Eurocurrency is currency held on deposit by governments or corporations operating outside of their home market. For example, a deposit of U.S. dollars (USD) held in a British bank would be considered eurocurrency, as would a deposit of British Pounds (GBP) made in the United States. Our euro banknotes symbolise the integration, openness and cooperation between the people of Europe.


After February 28, 2002, the euro became the sole currency of 12 EU member states, and their national currencies ceased to be legal tender. The euro currency originated on 1992 as a result of the Maastricht Treaty. On Jan. 1, 2002, the euro began circulating in member countries of the EU, and over the course of several years, it became the accepted currency of the European Union and ultimately replaced the currencies of many of its members.

In 2007 Slovenia became the first former communist country to adopt the euro. Having demonstrated fiscal stability since joining the EU in 2004, both Malta and the Greek Cypriot sector of Cyprus adopted the euro in 2008. Other countries that adopted the currency include Slovakia (2009), Estonia (2011), Latvia (2014), Lithuania (2015), and Croatia (2023). (The euro is also the official currency in several areas outside the EU, including Andorra, Montenegro, Kosovo, and San Marino.) The 20 participating EU countries are known as the euro area, euroland, or the euro zone. The euro was established by the provisions in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro.

Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used (as opposed to the less common Greek or Cyrillic) and Arabic numerals (other text is used on national sides in national languages, but other text on the common side is avoided). For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states of the union as of 2002. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro. The way currency pairs are quoted can vary depending on the country in which the trader lives—most countries use direct quotes, while the U.K., Australia, New Zealand, and Canada prefer indirect quotes.

Several countries use the U.S. dollar as their official currency, and many others allow it to be used in a de facto capacity. While the euro can’t be devalued to facilitate economic adjustments within the EU, that’s also made the common currency a more reliable store of value. The euro remains overwhelmingly popular among the residents of the countries that have adopted it.

We keep an eye on and report on the use of the euro outside the euro area. For local phonetics, cent, use of plural and amount formatting (€6,00 or 6.00 €), see Language and the euro. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euro are served by high stability and low inflation.

Wise Products

News of the government debt crisis and immigrant influx in Italy and Greece resulted in a euro selloff, prompting the pair’s exchange rate to plunge. The European Central Bank (ECB) has an EU mandate to maintain price stability by preserving the value of the euro. The ECB is part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) along with the national central banks of all the EU member states, including those that have not adopted the euro. Banks and traditional providers often have extra costs, which they pass to you by marking up the exchange rate. In addition to the rise of international transactions, another explanation for the use of eurocurrency throughout the world concerns regulation. For many banks, borrowing from other banks through the eurocurrency market can be a faster and more efficient way to access short-term financing as compared to finding alternative sources of funding within their home market.


This post outlines everything you need to know about converting USD to EUR, including how to get the best bang for your buck and where you’ll pay the highest fees. These private and business transactions are still subject to taxation law, business law, anti-money laundering law and other general commodity trade rules. However, currencies which are not official within the euro area, are not governed by monetary law. Euro coins are available in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, as well as €1 and €2. Coins have a standard image on one side, and on the other have a design related to the country of issue.

Today, the euro is the currency of 20 EU countries and about 350 million people. It is one of the most important currencies in the world and here at the European Central Bank we work to safeguard its value. On the other hand, the eurozone brought together economies with disparate characteristics and national budgets without the authority for the sort of cross-border fiscal transfers that take place between the U.S. federal government and U.S. states. Compare our rate and fee with our competitors and see the difference for yourself. Our currency rankings show that the most popular Euro exchange rate is the EUR to USD rate. As of 2020 only 19 of the 27 EU member states use the euro as their sole currency.

All investment services are provided by the respective Wise Assets entity in your location. This is only an example and past performance is not indicative of future returns. For this reason, the interest rate differential between the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Federal Reserve (Fed) affects the value of these currencies when compared to each other.

Now it takes $1.70 (more dollars) to purchase the same euro, making the dollar weaker and/or the euro stronger. The euro is the monetary unit and currency of the European Union, represented by the symbol €. It began as a noncash monetary unit in 1999 before being issued as currency notes and coins in 2002. The euro replaced the national currencies of participating EU states and some non-EU states. The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union,[note 6] based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December 1998. They were set so that one European Currency Unit (ECU) would equal one euro.

The EUR/USD pair has become the most widely-traded pair in the world. The pair represents a combination of two of the biggest economies in the world. It is affected by factors that influence the value of the euro and the U.S. dollar in relation to each other and to other currencies.

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